I thought this illustration was interesting, but I should introduce it with the note that an Introvert site presented it.
Jung developed the theory of introvert and extrovert as personality traits, and then expanded his insights into “personality typology.” This typology considers:
extrovert vs. introvert
sensing vs. intuition
thinking vs. feeling
judging vs. perceiving
The practical result for today is the Meyers Briggs Type Indicator which is used by many businesses and organizations for pre-employment screening, leadership development, team building, and career counseling. Oh! And marriage compatability!
There are several sites on which you can take different renditions of the Meyers Briggs. And there are also many books you can read for more information. Many books.
Jung devoted one volume of his Collected Works to Personality Types. Personality Types Vol. 6